Biofilm Development
Biofilm in general

Dental biofilm preserves enamel integrity through posteruption maturation. Newly erupted teeth are usually covered rapidly by acquired enamel pellicle (pellicle: thin protective membrane in some protozoa).
The process of demineralization and remineralization in the mouth is a constant process. The presence of fluoride within the biofilm is essential in limiting demineralization. Low calcium, low phosphate and low fluoride concentrations provide an environment for ideal remineralization.

Formation of Biofilm

Possible Therapies

Probiotics, Replacement therapy (recombinant DNA therapy)

Oral Microflora

This page introduces the concept of oral microflora. Oral microflora refers to the complex communities of microorganisms that co-exists in the mouth. This section explains the origin and the functions that the microflora plays, as well as variations and possible diseases of the microflora.

Specific Plaque Hypothesis
This page discusses the development of the Specific Plaque Hypothesis with reference to research and studies in the past. It also focuses on specific bacteria identified as the main causes of plaque formation.

Ecological Plaque Hypothesis (Non-Specific Plaque Hypothesis)

This page delves into details about the Ecological Plaque Hypothesis. Besides providing an overview of the ideas behind the hypothesis, key features of the Ecological Plaque Hypothesis are also highlighted. This section also strives to provide information on supporting evidence for the Hypothesis and highlight its clinical importance. A timeline is also provided, which shows the evolution of the hypothesis from the time the Specific Plaque Hypothesis was proposed.

Dental Biofilms

This page aims to explain more about the development, structure, composition and the cariogenic properties of dental biofilms.

Microbiology of Enamel Caries

This page aims to identify the roles of the different bacteria involved in different stages of enamel caries formation, as well as explain the dynamic interaction between the microflora and saliva on the enamel surface.

Microbiology of Root Caries

This page aims to identify and predict trends between the presence of certain types of bacteria and the prevalence of root caries.


This page aims to inform on the discovery and application of harmless strains of bacteria to inhibit cariogenic strains and in doing so, reduce caries formation.


  • Areas of new knowledge
  • Areas or concepts which were difficult to understand
  • Areas of controversy
  • Areas for further research
  • Areas which were fascinating and stirred your desire to learn more



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